Index: The Book of Statistical ProofsStatistical Models ▷ Univariate normal data ▷ Simple linear regression ▷ Weighted least squares

Theorem: Given a simple linear regression model with correlated observations

$\label{eq:slr} y = \beta_0 + \beta_1 x + \varepsilon, \; \varepsilon \sim \mathcal{N}(0, \sigma^2 V) \; ,$

the parameters minimizing the weighted residual sum of squares are given by

$\label{eq:slr-wls} \begin{split} \hat{\beta}_0 &= \frac{x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y - 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y}{x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n - 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n} \\ \hat{\beta}_1 &= \frac{1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y - x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y}{1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x - x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x} \end{split}$

where $1_n$ is an $n \times 1$ vector of ones.

$\label{eq:slr-mlr} X = \left[ \begin{matrix} 1_n & x \end{matrix} \right] \quad \text{and} \quad \beta = \left[ \begin{matrix} \beta_0 \\ \beta_1 \end{matrix} \right]$

and weighted least squares estimates are given by

$\label{eq:mlr-wls} \hat{\beta} = (X^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} X)^{-1} X^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y \; .$

Writing out equation \eqref{eq:mlr-wls}, we have

$\label{eq:slr-wls-b} \begin{split} \hat{\beta} &= \left( \left[ \begin{matrix} 1_n^\mathrm{T} \\ x^\mathrm{T} \end{matrix} \right] V^{-1} \left[ \begin{matrix} 1_n & x \end{matrix} \right] \right)^{-1} \left[ \begin{matrix} 1_n^\mathrm{T} \\ x^\mathrm{T} \end{matrix} \right] V^{-1} y \\ &= \left[ \begin{matrix} 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n & 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \\ x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n & x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \end{matrix} \right]^{-1} \left[ \begin{matrix} 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y \\ x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y \end{matrix} \right] \\ &= \frac{1}{x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n - 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n} \left[ \begin{matrix} x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x & -1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \\ -x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n & 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n \end{matrix} \right] \left[ \begin{matrix} 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y \\ x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y \end{matrix} \right] \\ &= \frac{1}{x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n - 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n} \left[ \begin{matrix} x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y - 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y \\ 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y - x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y \end{matrix} \right] \; . \end{split}$

Thus, the first entry of $\hat{\beta}$ is equal to:

$\label{eq:slr-wls-b1} \hat{\beta}_0 = \frac{x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y - 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y}{x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n - 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n} \; .$

Moreover, the second entry of $\hat{\beta}$ is equal to:

$\label{eq:slr-wls-b2} \hat{\beta}_1 = \frac{1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y - x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} y}{1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n \, x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x - x^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} 1_n \, 1_n^\mathrm{T} V^{-1} x} \; .$
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Metadata: ID: P289 | shortcut: slr-wls2 | author: JoramSoch | date: 2021-11-16, 11:20.