Index: The Book of Statistical ProofsGeneral Theorems ▷ Information theory ▷ Differential entropy ▷ Invariance under addition

Theorem: Let $X$ be a continuous random variable. Then, the differential entropy of $X$ remains constant under addition of a constant:

$\label{eq:dent-inv} \mathrm{h}(X + c) = \mathrm{h}(X) \; .$

Proof: By definition, the differential entropy of $X$ is

$\label{eq:X-dent} \mathrm{h}(X) = - \int_{\mathcal{X}} p(x) \log p(x) \, \mathrm{d}x$

where $p(x) = f_X(x)$ is the probability density function of $X$.

Define the mappings between $X$ and $Y = X + c$ as

$\label{eq:X-Y} Y = g(X) = X + c \quad \Leftrightarrow \quad X = g^{-1}(Y) = Y - c \; .$

Note that $g(X)$ is a strictly increasing function, such that the probability density function of $Y$ is

$\label{eq:Y-pdf} f_Y(y) = f_X(g^{-1}(y)) \, \frac{\mathrm{d}g^{-1}(y)}{\mathrm{d}y} \overset{\eqref{eq:X-Y}}{=} f_X(y-c) \; .$

Writing down the differential entropy for $Y$, we have:

$\label{eq:Y-dent-s1} \begin{split} \mathrm{h}(Y) &= - \int_{\mathcal{Y}} f_Y(y) \log f_Y(y) \, \mathrm{d}y \\ &\overset{\eqref{eq:Y-pdf}}{=} - \int_{\mathcal{Y}} f_X(y-c) \log f_X(y-c) \, \mathrm{d}y \end{split}$

Substituting $x = y - c$, such that $y = x + c$, this yields:

$\label{eq:Y-dent-s2} \begin{split} \mathrm{h}(Y) &= - \int_{\left\lbrace y-c \,|\, y \in {\mathcal{Y}} \right\rbrace} f_X(x+c-c) \log f_X(x+c-c) \, \mathrm{d}(x+c) \\ &= - \int_{\mathcal{X}} f_X(x) \log f_X(x) \, \mathrm{d}x \\ &\overset{\eqref{eq:X-dent}}{=} \mathrm{h}(X) \; . \end{split}$
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Metadata: ID: P199 | shortcut: dent-inv | author: JoramSoch | date: 2020-12-02, 16:11.