Index: The Book of Statistical ProofsStatistical Models ▷ Univariate normal data ▷ Analysis of variance ▷ Sums of squares in one-way ANOVA

Theorem: Given one-way analysis of variance,

$\label{eq:anova1} y_{ij} = \mu_i + \varepsilon_{ij}, \; \varepsilon_{ij} \overset{\mathrm{i.i.d.}}{\sim} \mathcal{N}(0, \sigma^2)$

sums of squares can be partitioned as follows

$\label{eq:anova1-pss} \mathrm{SS}_\mathrm{tot} = \mathrm{SS}_\mathrm{treat} + \mathrm{SS}_\mathrm{res}$

where $\mathrm{SS} _\mathrm{tot}$ is the total sum of squares, $\mathrm{SS} _\mathrm{treat}$ is the treatment sum of squares (equivalent to explained sum of squares) and $\mathrm{SS} _\mathrm{res}$ is the residual sum of squares.

Proof: The total sum of squares for one-way ANOVA is given by

$\label{eq:anova1-tss} \mathrm{SS}_\mathrm{tot} = \sum_{i=1}^{k} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} (y_{ij} - \bar{y})^2$

where $\bar{y}$ is the mean across all values $y_{ij}$. This can be rewritten as

$\label{eq:anova1-pss-s1} \begin{split} \sum_{i=1}^{k} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} (y_{ij} - \bar{y})^2 &= \sum_{i=1}^{k} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} \left[ (y_{ij} - \bar{y}_i) + (\bar{y}_i - \bar{y}) \right]^2 \\ &= \sum_{i=1}^{k} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} \left[ (y_{ij} - \bar{y}_i)^2 + (\bar{y}_i - \bar{y})^2 + 2 (y_{ij} - \bar{y}_i) (\bar{y}_i - \bar{y}) \right] \\ &= \sum_{i=1}^{k} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} (y_{ij} - \bar{y}_i)^2 + \sum_{i=1}^{k} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} (\bar{y}_i - \bar{y})^2 + 2 \sum_{i=1}^{k} (\bar{y}_i - \bar{y}) \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} (y_{ij} - \bar{y}_i) \; . \end{split}$

Note that the following sum is zero

$\label{eq:anova1-pss-s2} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} (y_{ij} - \bar{y}_i) = \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} y_{ij} - n_i \cdot \bar{y}_i = \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} y_{ij} - n_i \cdot \frac{1}{n_i} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} y_{ij} \; ,$

so that the sum in \eqref{eq:anova1-pss-s1} reduces to

$\label{eq:anova1-pss-s3} \sum_{i=1}^{k} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} (y_{ij} - \bar{y})^2 = \sum_{i=1}^{k} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} (\bar{y}_i - \bar{y})^2 + \sum_{i=1}^{k} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} (y_{ij} - \bar{y}_i)^2 \; .$

With the treatment sum of squares for one-way ANOVA

$\label{eq:anova1-trss} \mathrm{SS}_\mathrm{treat} = \sum_{i=1}^{k} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} (\bar{y}_i - \bar{y})^2$

and the residual sum of squares for one-way ANOVA

$\label{eq:anova1-rss} \mathrm{SS}_\mathrm{res} = \sum_{i=1}^{k} \sum_{j=1}^{n_i} (y_{ij} - \bar{y}_i)^2 \; ,$

we finally have:

$\label{eq:anova1-pss-qed} \mathrm{SS}_\mathrm{tot} = \mathrm{SS}_\mathrm{treat} + \mathrm{SS}_\mathrm{res} \; .$
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Metadata: ID: P376 | shortcut: anova1-pss | author: JoramSoch | date: 2022-11-15, 16:59.